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A New Crown Land Policy For The Turks And Caicos Government (US$43,716) January 2005 – June 2005
The Crown is the largest landholder in the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI). Land is by far the Government's most valuable tangible asset, and land still held by the Crown is probably a larger proportion of total land area in the TCI than in most jurisdictions in the Caribbean. A significant amount of Crown Land has been protected as national park and other protected area designation. The potential value of Crown land as a whole has risen dramatically over recent years and is likely to continue to do so.

This consultancy examined current Crown land policy and practice, working together with the Policy Review Team to get wide views, including taking into account the analysis and recommendations in the report on Crown Land by the Chief Auditor, and produced recommendations for a future comprehensive approach to maximize sustainable revenues from Crown Land, taking account of competing economic, social and environmental factors, to benefit the long term economic and social interests of the Belonger Community and to ensure transparency and openness in the administration of Crown land.

The overall objectives of this work was: 1) to describe and evaluate existing arrangements for the management and disposal of Crown Land; 2) to examine the experiences and practice in other comparable jurisdictions in formulating recommendations; and 3) to develop explicit policy and guidelines for the management of crown land designed to: a) maximize value for money for the TCIG; contribute to the overall social and economic development of the TCI; and, in the most effective and equitable way possible, to empower the Belonger community; b)meet the housing needs of Belongers in a way which satisfies goals of equity, need and overall social and economic welfare: and c) meet environmental needs both within and outside the protected area system, ensuring the adherence to national Environment Charter and international obligations on biodiversity conservation and other environmental elements.

Consultants worked in TCI during the first quarter of 2005 to develop a report which provided recommendations for the management of Crown Land, including and taking into account the analysis of the Chief Auditor's Report and points raised by the wider community.

Kosovo Land and Property Rights Assessment (US$20,920) October 2004
In association with ARD, Inc., Terra's Consultant conducted a land tenure and property rights assessment to determine how property rights are currently influencing conflict, investment, agriculture, and municipal governance. The work identified areas where USAID/Kosovo might provide technical assistance to draft laws, strengthen institutions and/or resolve conflicts to enhance household property security and business investment, improve economic growth, and lead to more effective local governance.

Workshop On Land Policy, Administration and Management For the English- Speaking Caribbean (US$108,380)
Under an Agreement with the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the Department for International Development (DFID) in the United Kingdom, Terra Institute provided technical, organizational and logistical services for a Learning Workshop on Land Policy, Administration and Management in the English-Speaking Caribbean which was held in Port of Spain, Trinidad in March, 2003. The Workshop brought together donors, program implementers, civil society and high level government representatives to help identify key policy issues leading to technical assistance and/or investment programs in land policy and administration in the Caribbean. The general objectives of the regional Learning Workshop were to: (i) share practical experiences between the various stakeholders of the countries in the region to assist the development of more effective land policies and investment programs; (ii) develop a Caribbean perspective on land administration and management, in order to ensure that the policies of international agencies reflect the realities of the region; and (iii) discuss ways in which broadly agreedupon principles of land policy can be translated into feasible national policies and programs that respond to the specific problems confronting the countries and the region. Additional funding and in-kind contributions were provided by the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and USAID.

The Workshop was largely successful in identifying key issues for land policy to enhance programs in land policy and administration in the Caribbean. By sharing experiences and lessons learned, the various stakeholders were better able to re-focus on Caribbean land policies and look at strengthening land management and land administration institutions to achieve the broad goals of the economic development, social equity and environmentally sustainable development. Out of the Workshop it was agreed that a Caribbean Land Network (CLN) be established. One of the first activities of the CLN was to publish the proceedings from the workshop in book form entitled "LAND IN THE CARIBBEAN-Issues of Policy, Administration and Management in the English-Speaking Caribbean". Copies of this book are available from Terra Institute and or download a PDF version (2 MB).

Development of Comprehensive Land Policy Framework (US$93,314) 2001 – 2002
The Kingdom of Cambodia received a grant from the Government of Japan to prepare a Land Management and Administration Project.  The government applied part of the grant to initiate work on developing a Comprehensive Land Policy Framework.  Based on an inter-agency seminar held during a World Bank identification mission in July 2000, the Ministry of Land Management, Urban Planning and Construction (MLMUPC) had prepared a draft land policy framework.  The draft included proposed policy objectives, and addressed issues and actions in the areas of land administration, management and distribution.

Land Titling Project II (US$20,000) in the Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (Laos). Dr. Malcolm D. Childress, Terra Institute, was part of the World Bank Team that assessed the progress to date on resolving outstanding land policy issues under the Laos Land Titling I Project and examined strategies for strengthening the ability of the government of Laos to formulate land policies and resolve issues in the future. The team prepared an Aide Memoire (AM) to the World Bank, which reflected the findings and conclusions of the Land Titling II Identification Mission. The findings and conclusions of the supervision mission are included in a separate AM. The body of this AM highlights the main understanding reached during the mission. The annexes of the AM include project logical framework, the Project Preparation Terms of Reference including the work plan and budget for the Government executed portion of the Japanese PHRD Grant.

Technical Review For The Lares Project (US$21,000)
Dr. Kenneth Lyons was retained by Terra Institute in July and August, 2002 to provide a technical review as part of a team designed to undertake a technical and financial review of the LARES Project (Land Registration Systems, Inc.) in the Philippines.  This technical review by the Institute was used as one of the inputs to the IFC decision to invest in the LARES project.  There is significant evidence, and best practice examples (and failures) show, that creating an effective and efficient land registration operation requires the adaptation of Information Technology to process land registration information as well as the creation of the institutional environment to support the efficient functioning of the land registration system.  In order to be reasonably comfortable with the technical aspects analyzed by the project consultants, as well as to provide a clear understanding of how these aspects may affect successful implementation of the project, the Terra Institute expert, Ken Lyons, examined the institutional environment in which the hardware and software investments were being made.

Preparation Of A Land Policy Note (US$12,000)
Terra’s Consultant, Dr. Malcolm Childress, was engaged by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)/World Bank for an assignment in Vietnam June 2002.   The objectives of the Policy Note were to summarize the government achievements in land management and administration, identify the challenges and the remaining agenda, and develop a plan for government action. The preparation of the policy note was undertaken within the overall framework of government objectives for poverty reduction, economic growth and sustainable management of natural resources.  A Preliminary Draft of the Land Policy Note was prepared for the World Bank by the Consultant Mission comprising Dr. Malcolm Childress and Dr. Dzung, the Nguyen to Vietnam in June 2002. The purposes of the Note were to summarize the country’s experience in land management and administration in the last decade, distill the Government’s remaining agenda and policy options, and recommend short and long term action programs.


  • Assisted the Government of Trinidad and Tobago in its effort to shift land policy to become more open, accessible, forward looking and market oriented; and to assist with the streamlining of the institutional and regulatory framework of land administration and accommodate an effective land policy. Terra also provided technical assistance for The Land Use Policy and Administration Project in conjunction with the Land Tenure Center/University of Wisconsin and its partner, Ordnance Survey (OSI)/UK under the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources (MALMR) and the Ministry of Housing and Settlements (MOH) of the Republic of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago (GORTT). Funding was provided by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Technical assistance included a Systems Engineer, Cadastral Specialist, Land Economist, Legal Specialist, Land Management Specialist and a Resident Advisor. 1999 Ð 2001 (US$587,500)

  • Provided technical assistance and training of Albanian officials in the areas of Land Administration, analysis and appraisal of fragmentation and consolidation of agricultural lands, development of public ownership law for immovable property, preparation of draft legislation for family under the Land Market Action Plan for the Land Tenure Center (LTC) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Food (MOAF)/Government of Albania/(USAID) inheritance of agricultural land; developed policies for registration of immovable property and development of procedures and training for operation of Registration Offices. 1998 Ð 2001 (US$371,89);

  • Prepared the final technical project component description of the Land Consolidation Agricultural Services Project in Albania for final appraisal by the World Bank mission team in January 2001 (US$17,250);

  • Prepared the Land Component for the Agricultural Sector Investment Program (ASIP) for the GORTT with funding from the IDB (US$157,150), that provided technical assistance in the areas of Land Tenure, Land Administration, Legal, Environmental, Cadastral Mapping, Geodetic and Land Information Systems;

  • Analyzed and developed legislation, regulation and criteria for converting leasehold land to freehold property under the Public Land Administration & Regularization Project in Guyana in association with OSI (US$24,550);

  • Implemented the Albania Land Legislation and Policy Project, under contract with the Albania Ministry of Agriculture and Food and funded by the World Bank (US$529,449);

  • Reviewed the project proposal for Land Administration Project in Jamaica in association with IDB(US$8,800);

  • Assessed current laws and regulations and drafted new national registry law for the Honduran Land Registration Project in association with Florida International University (US$24,500)

  • Designed and implemented the Kyrgyz Republic Real Estate Registrations and Markets Project under a subcontract with the International City/County Management Association and funded by the US Agency for International Development (US$529,449);

  • Conducted an Appraisal mission for land and agrarian reform in Kyrgyzstan funded by ULG (a British Corporation) and the World Bank;

  • Participated in research program designed to improve the recyclability of consumer plastics, with funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency and the New York State Environmental Protection Agency;

  • Analyzed leasing legislation in Albania, funded by the World Bank;

  • Conducted two assessments of legislation in Romania, funded by the World Bank; Reviewed the relationship between resource tenure and the conservation of biological diversity in Africa, with funding from the US Agency for International Development;

  • Studied forest management and indigenous peoples in Yucatan, Mexico with funds received by private donation;

  • Produced a video concerning land conflicts of indigenous groups in Ecuador with funding from OXFAM;

  • Facilitated an educational program which dealt with the Native American land ethic in Wisconsin, funded by the Dane County Cultural Affairs Commission and private donations;

  • Assessed land registration and land tenure policy requirements in Sri Lanka, funded by the World Bank; Conducted preliminary assessments for the development of a land policy and administration project in Trinidad and Tobago, with funding from the IDB.
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A staff member at the Project Coordination Unit in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan utilizing the plotter that was procured under the USAID Real Estate Market Action Plan Project.

In Trinidad and Tobago there is widespread insecurity and informality of tenure. 47% of all households do not have adequate title documents and there are 30,000 squatters on the island.
(Real Property Rights forum, January 2005)

Terra also assisted in the preparation and publication of a book entitled “Land in the Caribbean; Issues of Policy, Administration and Management in the English-Speaking Carribbean”, which includes a compilation of the presentations made at the Workshop and defined the “Next Steps” to be taken by the newly formed Caribbean Land Policy Network.